Hindi Grammar In Brief
Vyakaran is presented here in a simple form. Just read it to find similarity with English language. Do not worry if you're unable to understand it right now. You can learn it subsequently along with your Hindi tutorial lessons
Sangya (Noun In Hindi Grammar)
These are of five types:
- Vyakti vachak sangya (Proper Noun) - e.g. Delhi, Gandhi, Ramayan, Geetanjali, Himalaya, Tajmahal
- Jati vachak sangya (Common Noun) - e.g. more(peacock), pustak(book), mahila(lady), baalak(boy), baalika(girl)
- Bhav vachak sangya (Abstract Noun) - e.g. bachpan(childhood), satya(truth), sundarata(beauty), namrata(politeness)
- Samudaay vachak sangya (Collective Noun) - e.g. sena(armed forces), sabha(assembly), mandali(group)
- Dravya vachak sangya (Material Noun) - e.g. sona(gold), loha(iron), paani(water)
B. Sangya-Vikar (Declension of Nouns)
Due to three reasons-- (i) Ling, (ii) Vachan, (iii) Karak
Ling (Gender) - In Hindi, there are only two types. These are
- Pull-ling (Masculine)
- Stri-ling (Feminine).
Vachan (Number) - These are of two types.
- Ek-vachan (Singular Number)
- Bahu-vachan (Plural Number)
Karak (Case) - These are of eight types.
- Karta (Nominative) - represented by Hindi word "ne"
- Karm (Objective, Accusative) - "ko"
- Karan (Instruments) - "se, ke dwara"
- Sampradan (Dative) - "ko, ke liye"
- Apadan (Ablative) - "se"
- Sambandh (Genetive, Possessive) - "ka, ki, ke"
- Adhikaran (Locative) - "me, par"
- Sambodhan (Vocative) - "Hey!, Arrey!"
Sarvnaam (Pronoun In Hindi Grammar)
Pronouns in Hindi language are of five types:
- 1. Purush vachak sarvnaam (Personal pronoun) - These are of three kind :
- Uttam Purush (First Person) e.g. mae (I), hum(we), mera (my), humara (our)
- Madhyam Purush (Second Person) e.g. tum(you), tera(your)
- Anya Purush (Third person) e.g. vah (he), uska (his)
- 2. Nischay vachak sarvnaam (Demonstrative pronoun) - Point to a definite person or object. e.g. yeh (this), veh (that), ye(these), ve (those)
- 3. Anischay vachak sarvnaam (Indefinite pronoun) - Do not point to a definite person or object. e.g. koi (someone), kuchh (something)
- 4. Sambandh vachak sarvnaam (Relative pronoun) - Relate one word to another. e.g. jo (who), jiski (whose), jaisa (like)
- 5. Prashna vachak sarvnaam (Interrogative pronoun) - Used for interrogation. e.g. kaun (who), kya (what), kisko (whom)
B. Sarvnaam Roop (Pronoun Forms)
Similar to declension of nouns, a pronoun also has two Vachan; and eight Karak (case).